Get Amplitude From Wav File Python

You can vote up the examples you like or vote down the ones you don't like. To understand writing of wave files, it helps understanding how wave files are read, and then using the set and write functions in documentation, we can write a wave file. Process Prerecorded Audio File. How can i open a mp3 file and play it in python? There is a mp3 file on my Linux desktop and i want to open it from a python file and play it. WAV Files Mixing. I have a wav file and I want to get the frequencies, amplitudes, and Phase. There are plenty of other media. This signal is a (real-valued) sinusoid, fifty points long, with amplitude 1, angular frequency 0. Importing QFileDialog is required. Among the major new features in Python 3. This tutorial will walk through using Google Cloud Speech API to transcribe a large audio file. Any advice would be appreciated, Thanks. wav Further reading Apart from the current README file and the wiki , a more general and theoretic description of the adopted methods (along with several experiments on particular use-cases) is. 038608 clock: duration_clock = 0. I have actually an array of 16 bits signed int and I would like to get the frequency and the amplitude of each sample. An MFA file is similar in that the file extension closely resembles ". Some of the input data hardcode are: data file and images paths, data column name, many plot parameters, etc. Click here for more info. Our notebook gallery is an excellent way to see the many things you can do with IPython while learning about a variety of topics, from basic programming to advanced statistics or quantum mechanics. I'll show how to use them to create and write data to a sound file. WAV files, I am looking for amplitude information. REAPER supports a vast range of hardware, digital formats and plugins, and can be comprehensively extended, scripted and modified. We’ll run a few commands at the console to play with output, but we’ll want to create an file later to make programs that are actually useful. seek(), if you are. This can be pictorial represented as follows. (' amplitude ') This is because the above code is for dual channel. Learn Python with CircuitPython. It may save someone else some time. A typical use would be generating a customized PowerPoint presentation from database content, downloadable by clicking a link in a web application. Using Snack you can create powerful multi-platform audio applications with just a few lines of code. According to the docs, depending on the nature of the audio file scipy. To verify the authenticity of the download, grab both files and then run this command: gpg --verify Python-3. Can I make amplitude from this formula. And remember, Google is your friend! 1. Right click on it and copy it. Easy to use The user can easily declare the features to extract and their parameters in a text file. This example explains how to play an audio file on Unix, Linux. The generator returns an iterator in the form header+data, where the. We will give a brief primer about how to work with speech signals. Python: streaming request data files; streaming to a subprocess. On Mac, right-click the video file and click “Get Info”, then under “More Info” you should see both the video and audio codec. [email protected] Introduction to the course, to the field of Audio Signal Processing, and to the basic mathematics needed to start the course. Function File: lin2mu (x, n) Convert audio data from linear to mu-law. Hello, I'm new here ! My hobby is microcontrollers and now I'm doing a project where I could change the sound volume with buttons on my breadboard. seek() approach will be very memory efficient but also very slow. au format to. Tcl is required for running PAGE but is not required for executing the generated Python code. I had used audioread function to get the amplitude value to compare both of mp3 audio files (before and after steganography process). Now we can use this command to play any audio on command line: mpg321 audio. Get the username from a prompts Tweet Search using Python Date and Time in Python Python Game : Rolling the dice Monitor Apache / Nginx Log File Log Checker in Python Python : Guessing Game part 2 Guessing Game written in Python Python Password Generator Convert KM/H to MPH Get all the links from a website Celsius and Fahrenheit Converter. can you help with this problem?. So any buddy know to how to find the amplitude from mp3 file. Audio signal processing with amplitude and FFT (Fast Fourier Transform) implementation - posted in Source Codes: It has been a while since my last post,so ive decided to take a look at one of my friendss idea,Mr THG (The Hidden Ghost). If you're keen to use the Win32 API where possible, or are concerned not to clobber existing files, then the CopyFile function from the win32file module of the pywin32 extensions may be what you're after. To read input audio file, there is a python package which is and sounds with effects), there are some wave plots with raw wave and amplitude. Ok Iv been doing some research on plotting a sound file with the amplitude as the y value and frequency as the x. These files are provided on this site under fair use purely for your own personal use and enjoyment. A rock concert can be about 120 dBA. WAV files & sound bites at The Sound Archive, offering sound files from some of our favorite movies and TV shows. Rocket science uses programming, but programming isn't rocket science. 6 Shows: - a simple 'square wave' generated - resampling sample rates (eg, 8363 to 44100) - using built in python array for making pygame. wav file, adjust the audio, and test playing the file. Get the username from a prompts Tweet Search using Python Date and Time in Python Python Game : Rolling the dice Monitor Apache / Nginx Log File Log Checker in Python Python : Guessing Game part 2 Guessing Game written in Python Python Password Generator Convert KM/H to MPH Get all the links from a website Celsius and Fahrenheit Converter. I'm messing around with reading in a sine wave and performing some calculations in Python. by Justin Yek How to scrape websites with Python and BeautifulSoup There is more information on the Internet than any human can absorb in a lifetime. The overtones activate and you get something just as flat, but a lot buzzier. The following are code examples for showing how to use scipy. Since it's very simple, we'll also show how to make a simple wave player. This is the first in a series of articles dedicated to mining data on Twitter using Python. Keep in mind that every time you run your flow graph in GRC, it will overwrite the Python script that is generated. You can also manage metadata (including tags), share the sound on other social networks, or add the sound to playlists. Presentation at PyCon [March 2004] Epydoc was presented at PyCon by Edward Loper. read() gives the data in one of the formats below:. "RMS power" itself is an ill-defined term that, if taken literally, may be computed, but has no physical meaning. Example three uses an Array of Soundfiles as a basis for a sampler. `wav2vec` is a Python script and package for converting waveform files (WAV or AIFF) to vector graphics (SVG or PostScript). (Sales and Pye, Ultrasonic Communication by Animals). The best way to handle audio streaming in Python is by using a module - Pygame. 75, Music: 0. I used your provided. Get the Duration of an Audio or Video File in Javascript It is quite easy to get the playback length (in seconds) of an audio or video file. 0 # framerate as a float amp. This enabled a user-configurable Www input history december and recall as python as high search functionality on console windows level, that is, fully agreed into the combined system and regional to running applications. You need to know the sensitivity of the microphone in millivolts per pascal, and the sesitivity od the sound board in amplitude uits per volt. This document is a work in progress. 0) function. py calls storage. I am not able to get a proper output for the code in jupyter notebook. Python Programming tutorials from beginner to advanced on a massive variety of topics. Programs that you might use to manipulate zip files include WinZip and 7-Zip. 1 Introduction When we use Matlab to do simulation, it is believed that in order to write the code cleanly and. First, it could digitize sounds 100% faithful to the original source because it is a lossless format. the speed of the wave is a property of the medium. The following are code examples for showing how to use flask. Note that it does not allow read/write WAV files. 5 How does the pole radius r affect the amplitude envelope of impulse response from EE EL6183 at New York University. The AudioFile class represents an audio file on disk, such as a FLAC file, MP3 file, WAVE file and so forth. …Just by looking at this, I can tell visually…that I have three sounds here. With VLC, you don't need to worry about codecs and file support. Uploads, URL ingestion and iOS/Android device integration are all made fast and easy via the #1 developer service for uploads. This is a complete Python programming tutorial (for both Python 2 and Python 3!). I'd like to find a way of putting them together in a single file, while controlling when each file playback should start. Rather than playing individual tones simply generate a. Right click on it and copy it. Epydoc is under active development; if you wish to keep up on the latest developments, you can get epydoc from the subversion repository. After reducing images, minifying CSS and JS files, compacting long XML 3D assets files into binary arrays, etc. It is easy to get these files mixed up with other programs we are making. The Snack Sound Toolkit is designed to be used with a scripting language such as Tcl/Tk or Python. To run this command in python program, add these two lines into above program. But the sound is very low and many noises are coming along with the sound. Introductory demonstrations to some of the software applications and tools to be used. 18 (Installation)python-pptx is a Python library for creating and updating PowerPoint (. For example, if you use Pycharm IDE, you may notice that there is option to share your project on github. The Waveform Editor also provides Spectral Frequency Display. wav file, adjust the audio, and test playing the file. If you want to add additional WAV sound files into the 'sounds' folder you have already created as suggested above then just add the WAV files to the existing files in the 'sounds' folder on your PC then download the whole folder to the EV3 again as described above. ) but if I do that, I will need to adjust the phase. Your message has been reported and will be reviewed by our staff. Python Programming tutorials from beginner to advanced on a massive variety of topics. This allows you to open, modify, and save WAVE files. According to the docs, depending on the nature of the audio file scipy. Audioread is “universal” and supports both Python 2 (2. asc Note that you must use the name of the signature file, and you should use the one that's appropriate to the download you're verifying. Python is a computer programming language that lets you work more quickly than other programming languages. It provides simple and efficient tools for sophisticated vector and raster analysis, geocoding, map making, routing and directions, as well as for organizing and managing a GIS with users, groups and information items. View Notes - Lecture 15. The Snack Sound Toolkit is designed to be used with a scripting language such as Tcl/Tk or Python. A module allows you to logically organize your Python code. read (filename, mmap=False) [source] ¶ Open a WAV file. Sprites are stored in image files on your computer. These files were collected from a number of publicly accessible sites on the web that made no mention or assertion of copyright over these files or the collection. We have often been asked: "Is there no Tk for Python?" or "Is Tkinter the same as Tk?" Of course, there is Tk for Python. You leave out the '. - Duration: 16:13. This will result in converting 3 output audio files (wav,ogg,mp4) from one mp3 file. wav file is is plotted in time domain followed by the spectrogram of the sound wave. The wave module defines the following function and exception: wave. It provides support of the protocol and allows you to extend capabilities by subclassing. I did change the question: even if the problem asked to read a CSV file, I implemented a get_table generator instead, able to process a generic iterable in the form header+data, where the header is the schema - the ordered list of the field names - and data are the records. Introduction to the course, to the field of Audio Signal Processing, and to the basic mathematics needed to start the course. The file may be in whatever format that the browser supports – mp3, mp4, ogg, wav, etc. Recording multi-track audio. If mode is omitted and a file-like object is passed as file , file. In this blog, we will extract features of music files that will help us to classify music files into different genres or to recommend music based on your favorites. Windows vista password reset disk free download Windows Password Reset Standard Reset Windows Password Windows Password Reset Professional and many more programs. The output of this functionality is a classifier model which can be stored in a file. The AudioFile class represents an audio file on disk, such as a FLAC file, MP3 file, WAVE file and so forth. The standard Python library has a built-in module that can be used as minimalistic HTTP/HTTPS web server. It may save someone else some time. read('bells. Automatic bird sound recognition with machine learning - Dan Stowell - Duration: Let's Build an Audio Spectrum Analyzer in Python! (pt. There are plenty of other media. Contributions of. mode can be any of 'r', 'rb' Read only mode. But that means in order to shift differently for each word, I will have many segments with different sampling rates and have no easy way to concatenate them into one file. "RMS power" itself is an ill-defined term that, if taken literally, may be computed, but has no physical meaning. We will later get into the details of creating a python program, for now let us check if python is working. Of course, this should be done with caution, since there probably a good reason the file is not normal. Play the file in any audio player you have- Windows Media player, VLC etc. It allows you to parse, demutiplex, multiplex, decode and encode all supported formats. If intensity of a wave is proportional to frequency, why doesn't sound level, in general, depend on frequency. thanks in advance. Under the “Details” tab you will see the file format and codecs used. I am currently looking at python to do it. Lecture 18, FFT Fast Fourier Transform A basic Fourier transform can convert a function in the time domain to a function in the frequency domain. The netrc file overrides raw HTTP authentication headers set with headers=. Introduction to Python and to the sms-tools package, the main programming tool for the course. Basically, this data gives me a sorted list of what amplitudes appear at what times, so that I can play small pieces of the audio according to any desired amplitude. python27-x64. If you are creating a game, most of what you are looking for may already be included in the many PythonGameLibraries that are available. pyplot as plt from scipy. where n is a number of seconds) you wish the blank sound to be. The highest quality being th 16-bit at 44,100 HZ, this highest level is the sampling rate of an audio CD and uses 88KB of storage per second. for example what information i need to get from wav file and then give it to FFT algorithm which will give me frequency and amplitude. 7 series is the newest major release of the Python language and contains many new features and optimizations. Play Bluetooth Audio on a Raspberry Pi: get some music. Well this can be quite tedious to require. When the frequencies are close together, they are enclosed in a beat envelope that modulates the amplitude or loudness of the sound. To find a specific topic in this guide, use ctrl+F (command+F on a Mac) to search for a keyword, or find the relevant section in the table of contents below. If you're looking for some functionality in particular, it's a good idea to take a look at the source code. If all you know about computers is how to save text files, then this is the book for you. Step 4: Let's do this! Right, we got everything set up and we got ourselves a plan! Split the large wav file to smaller wav files; Convert each wav file to flac. All the peak detection functions in __all__ of peakdetect. Below is an example of splitting a sound file from 2nd to 4th: $. File dialog example. Select the appropriate CD drive and click the Rip button. I also use C++ and Java, often with Python. Let's start with baby steps on how to download a file using. However, Audition has a feature that will allow you to remove all the inconsistent noise in one step. The standard Python library has a built-in module that can be used as minimalistic HTTP/HTTPS web server. How to Change a Midi File to a Wav or MP3 File. But each of the. Play the file in any audio player you have- Windows Media player, VLC etc. Also if you do that check out getting pyscripter which is a simple IDE which makes it easier to play with. Python: streaming request data files; streaming to a subprocess. A cycle of sine wave is complete when the position of the sine wave starts from a position and comes to the same position after attaining its maximum and minimum amplitude during its course. This guide is for for students in CS101 at Boston University and covers the Python, Jython, and JES features that you'll use in CS101. When I try and run from terminal, I get:: No such file or directory. “Sample rate” is the rate at which the file samples will be played back and defaults to match the data from the imported file. You can just turn in a sheet with the answers. sRiffType: 4: char[4] “WAVE” For WAV files, this value is always WAVE. The frequency of the sine wave is given by. I had used audioread function to get the amplitude value to compare both of mp3 audio files (before and after steganography process). Manipulate audio with a simple and easy high level interface Open a WAV file from pydub import AudioSegment song = AudioSegment. mid is a "do-nothing" sound file -it does not play any sound at all, but can be used to stop the playback of other sound files. So I have a unique challenge. I tried a program which can open a website by pushin. Aubio - Aubio is a tool designed for the extraction of annotations from audio signals. It all comes down to waveforms and how they vibrate. io import wavfile as wav rate, data = wav. These files are provided on this site under fair use purely for your own personal use and enjoyment. pythondoc: A utility for creating documentation from the comments in your Python code that works much like JavaDoc. In this OpenCV with Python tutorial, we're going to discuss object detection with Haar Cascades. Analyze Audio Level in Real Time with Python. I have tried to do that but what I get I can not get the interpreter import math import numpy as np from matplotlib. Every sound that Csound produces is passed to its output buffer, so it’s the go-to place when we need to record audio output. 0, this becomes ~ -10 to +10. sound as sound, time snd1= sound. Python: uploading file via HTTP with pyCurl and Requests Posted on August 12, 2011 May 10, 2019 Author Oleksii Tykhonov Posted in linux Leave a Reply Here is a simple way to upload file in Python. There are plenty of ways to play audio files with Python. the readWave function reads wav files as integer types. In this first part, we’ll see different options to collect data from Twitter. If intensity of a wave is proportional to frequency, why doesn't sound level, in general, depend on frequency. and sound files as sound1. Could wav_io load a PCM WAVE file? Yes, that's all the wav_io. I'm experimenting to see how fast Python and SciPy can calculate sound. wav file, but I don't have any idea how. This article takes a tour around the most frequently used blocks, explaining the syntax and how to use them. In this blog, we will extract features of music files that will help us to classify music files into different genres or to recommend music based on your favorites. I make the following steps: Open cmd. Python: streaming request data files; streaming to a subprocess. I have real-time audio application written in python, and I have question about detecting silence. i want to kwon if this can convert all wave file. For example, assuming all three audio files are different, the following code prints the same value for all three analyze() methods:. I then had a crazy idea. To analyze tonal and dynamic range, use the Frequency Analysis and Amplitude Statistics panels. In addition to changing the dimensions and background color of the waveform image, you can also adjust the colors of the gradient that is used on the waveform visualization. For example, consider a sound wave where the amplitude is varying with time. Sound file playback with the Sound library is fairly simple. Categories include answering machine, cartoon, email, funny, movie, parody, vehicle WAV sound effects and more. deb file for 14. If all you know about computers is how to save text files, then this is the book for you. As a note with open was new in python 2. “Lossless” means that the file format does not compromise audio quality even when it holds compressed data. I have following questions for you. wav plus bassoon-e4. Different python modules to read wav: the easiest way to get audio data from a sound file into a NumPy Extracting an amplitude list from *. wav"): """ create a synthetic 'sine wave' wave file with frequency freq file fname has a length of about data_size * 2 """ frate = 11025. Generating audio signals is dead easy. We use the with statement because it will automatically close a file and simplifies the code. If you find yourself running up against these issues frequently, you may have to resort to some pre-processing of the audio. written by Jon Berg The great thing about Python is what they call "batteries included", that means a lot of functionallity is bundled with the programming language. Assuming that your program provides some means for the user to select or specify an input sound file, reading that file's audio data involves three steps: Get an AudioInputStream object from the file. Sound on a computer is a sequence of numbers and in this post we will see how to generate a musical tone with numpy and how to write it to a file wav file. The audio signal is a three-dimensional signal in which three axes represent time, amplitude and frequency. flac file and was able to separate the sources. The message signal power is increased keeping the carrier level constant to get different modulation indices. Now when talking about sound waves the sound level of a noise (loudness), it is proportional to the intensity of the source. If stereo WAV file's both channels are identical, change format to mono for all files recursively. Sound intensity is the measure of amplitude at a particular instance of time from a 16 bit. A typical use would be generating a customized PowerPoint presentation from database content, downloadable by clicking a link in a web application. Generate customiseable waveform images from mp3 and m4a audio files and download them for free. ) So, I figured the easiest way to get this done was a quick Python script. A cycle of sine wave is complete when the position of the sine wave starts from a position and comes to the same position after attaining its maximum and minimum amplitude during its course. python_speech_features. They are extracted from open source Python projects. seek() in python? python,file,hash,size,seek. If you don’t have the resources to buy a dedicated plug-in like Trapcode Sound Keys don’t worry. au format to. In this series, we'll build an audio spectrum analyzer using pyaudio and matplotlib. Once we have built a data set, in the next episodes we’ll discuss some interesting data applications. It is measured in decibels or dBA of sound pressure. py The input file is english. This is a sample program to demonstrate the calculation of intensity. png is in the PNG format. wav, sound2. You can then convert the audio data into a playable audio file like an MP3 by decoding the base64 data. It allows you to parse, demutiplex, multiplex, decode and encode all supported formats. Rip Audio CD. I have a PhD in Electrical Engineering. 0 dBA is the softest level that a person can hear. API Documentation. This course is ideal for those that are interested in data mining, and it is a beginner course. Note AVI files are the only supported file type for non-Windows platforms. Function File: lin2mu (x, n) Convert audio data from linear to mu-law. Play next; Play now; Tutorial 21. Thanks in advance !. For this code the output file does not contain anything even the baby cry is erased. 04 amplitude) filters. Go to python. These are sounds with high fluctuation strength. I used the open source SoX module for the conversion. for example binary files. Using the Requests Module in Python True in the request to get the raw response. The overtones activate and you get something just as flat, but a lot buzzier. Amplitude ( Top, Wave Home). Second idea is two first slow down or speed up a segment of audio with the Phase Vocoder, then change the sampling rate, making it go back to desired speed but shifting the pitch. Python is a computer programming language. degree of preservation of the overall amplitude of the signal degree of preservation of the frequency bandwidth of the signal, subject to limitations of the sink sample rate overall latency through the resampler consistent phase and group delay with respect to frequency computational complexity,. Tutorial 9: A Dictionary of the GNU Radio blocks Dawei Shen⁄ August 21, 2005 Abstract A dictionary of the GNU Radio blocks. The returned array will always have lenght of multiples of FFT_SIZE to ease preprocessing, this is done via zero padding at the end. The following are code examples for showing how to use matplotlib. I am trying to analyze the amplitude of multiple audio files using the Sound library, but it seems I am only able to analyze one at a time. Select the appropriate CD drive and click the Rip button. Similarly, while extracting the files, you can extract them to the location you want, based on your own criteria like size, etc. This change in loudness brought on by an increase in amplitude is not proportionate. wav") Writing to file test. wav file based on these given parameters? I would say the amplitude A can be converted to Vp or Vrms. I will be using the god-send library requests for it. Skip navigation Sign in. a-LAW is an audio encoding format whereby you get a dynamic range of about 13 bits using only 8 bit samples. QUIZ 6 The characteristic of a sound wave that determines if the sound is loud or soft is the _. The frequencies of the tune or the pitch are identified with the brighter yellow columns present in the spectrum. Speech Recognition in Python using Google Speech API Speech Recognition is an important feature in several applications used such as home automation, artificial intelligence, etc. bash: Can I pipe the name of a file created by a program to a python script? I am trying to use bash and a pipe to process a file created by one program in a python script. This simulation lets you see sound waves. The official home of the Python Programming Language. Select the appropriate CD drive and click the Rip button. class sound. A CSV file may look a little messier when you open it in a text editor, but it can be helpful to always continue thinking of it as a grid structure. You can vote up the examples you like or vote down the ones you don't like. Additionaly, urllib2 offers an interface for handling common situations - like basic authentication, cookies, proxies and so on. py module, and added to AudioSegment via the effect registration process (the register_pydub_effect() decorator. •The value describes the amplitude of the sound wave at one point in time 12 Programming with Audio Reading and playing a WAV File Get/set individual samples Create an empty sound file Saving a WAV file. A typical use would be generating a customized PowerPoint presentation from database content, downloadable by clicking a link in a web application. Language and architecture issues. com CONTENT Business Creative Technology Audio and Music Graphic Design Motion Graphics and VFX. The Waveform Editor also provides Spectral Frequency Display. In the sample data below (the default from the site itself), there is but one row of data, even if it looks like several rows. Connect the USB sound card to one of the USB ports of the Pi and power on the Pi. Only to be used on real files (Default: False). Sounds that are 85 dBA or above can permanently damage your ears. Although the techniques used to for onset detection rely heavily on audio feature engineering and machine learning, deep learning can easily be used here to optimize the results. You're probably only interested in the (squared) magnitude, and you'll get much nicer plots if you plot it on a logarithmic scale. In the last years, we have experienced a terrific spike of products and solutions targeting home automation and automation in general. I Cannot Get Any Sound Output from GUITAR RIG 5 Note: GUITAR RIG is an FX application and not a sound generator. Sox provides the option for playing and recording sound files. 4/15 We make distinction between simple sounds (single frequency: pitch, sheer energy in sound: amplitude, tuning fork) and. 04 amplitude) filters. Example three uses an Array of Soundfiles as a basis for a sampler. There are plenty of ways to play audio files with Python. I looked at a few audio tagging tools in the Ubuntu repos, and came up short finding something simple that covered my needs. Video transcript. So, before I have to relearn my math, has someone some code which will deterime the time in seconds of a wav sound file?. I'd rather not use a command line tool like sax or ffmpeg:. It provides support of the protocol and allows you to extend capabilities by subclassing. 1) The total distance traveled by a point on a string one complete cycle as a sinusoidal wave passes by is _____ times the amplitude of the wave. GitHub Gist: instantly share code, notes, and snippets. In this post I will demonstrate how to extract some useful information from an audio file using Python. Parameters filename string or open file handle. Python For Dummies 7chan. Compute the Signal To Noise ratio in audio files in Python. get_filterbanks (nfilt=20, nfft=512, samplerate=16000, lowfreq=0, highfreq=None) ¶ Compute a Mel-filterbank. I also use C++ and Java, often with Python. The fact-checkers, whose work is more and more important for those who prefer facts over lies, police the line between fact and falsehood on a day-to-day basis, and do a great job. Today, my small contribution is to pass along a very good overview that reflects on one of Trump’s favorite overarching falsehoods. Namely: Trump describes an America in which everything was going down the tubes under  Obama, which is why we needed Trump to make America great again. And he claims that this project has come to fruition, with America setting records for prosperity under his leadership and guidance. “Obama bad; Trump good” is pretty much his analysis in all areas and measurement of U.S. activity, especially economically. Even if this were true, it would reflect poorly on Trump’s character, but it has the added problem of being false, a big lie made up of many small ones. Personally, I don’t assume that all economic measurements directly reflect the leadership of whoever occupies the Oval Office, nor am I smart enough to figure out what causes what in the economy. But the idea that presidents get the credit or the blame for the economy during their tenure is a political fact of life. Trump, in his adorable, immodest mendacity, not only claims credit for everything good that happens in the economy, but tells people, literally and specifically, that they have to vote for him even if they hate him, because without his guidance, their 401(k) accounts “will go down the tubes.” That would be offensive even if it were true, but it is utterly false. The stock market has been on a 10-year run of steady gains that began in 2009, the year Barack Obama was inaugurated. But why would anyone care about that? It’s only an unarguable, stubborn fact. Still, speaking of facts, there are so many measurements and indicators of how the economy is doing, that those not committed to an honest investigation can find evidence for whatever they want to believe. Trump and his most committed followers want to believe that everything was terrible under Barack Obama and great under Trump. That’s baloney. Anyone who believes that believes something false. And a series of charts and graphs published Monday in the Washington Post and explained by Economics Correspondent Heather Long provides the data that tells the tale. The details are complicated. Click through to the link above and you’ll learn much. But the overview is pretty simply this: The U.S. economy had a major meltdown in the last year of the George W. Bush presidency. Again, I’m not smart enough to know how much of this was Bush’s “fault.” But he had been in office for six years when the trouble started. So, if it’s ever reasonable to hold a president accountable for the performance of the economy, the timeline is bad for Bush. GDP growth went negative. Job growth fell sharply and then went negative. Median household income shrank. The Dow Jones Industrial Average dropped by more than 5,000 points! U.S. manufacturing output plunged, as did average home values, as did average hourly wages, as did measures of consumer confidence and most other indicators of economic health. (Backup for that is contained in the Post piece I linked to above.) Barack Obama inherited that mess of falling numbers, which continued during his first year in office, 2009, as he put in place policies designed to turn it around. By 2010, Obama’s second year, pretty much all of the negative numbers had turned positive. By the time Obama was up for reelection in 2012, all of them were headed in the right direction, which is certainly among the reasons voters gave him a second term by a solid (not landslide) margin. Basically, all of those good numbers continued throughout the second Obama term. The U.S. GDP, probably the single best measure of how the economy is doing, grew by 2.9 percent in 2015, which was Obama’s seventh year in office and was the best GDP growth number since before the crash of the late Bush years. GDP growth slowed to 1.6 percent in 2016, which may have been among the indicators that supported Trump’s campaign-year argument that everything was going to hell and only he could fix it. During the first year of Trump, GDP growth grew to 2.4 percent, which is decent but not great and anyway, a reasonable person would acknowledge that — to the degree that economic performance is to the credit or blame of the president — the performance in the first year of a new president is a mixture of the old and new policies. In Trump’s second year, 2018, the GDP grew 2.9 percent, equaling Obama’s best year, and so far in 2019, the growth rate has fallen to 2.1 percent, a mediocre number and a decline for which Trump presumably accepts no responsibility and blames either Nancy Pelosi, Ilhan Omar or, if he can swing it, Barack Obama. I suppose it’s natural for a president to want to take credit for everything good that happens on his (or someday her) watch, but not the blame for anything bad. Trump is more blatant about this than most. If we judge by his bad but remarkably steady approval ratings (today, according to the average maintained by 538.com, it’s 41.9 approval/ 53.7 disapproval) the pretty-good economy is not winning him new supporters, nor is his constant exaggeration of his accomplishments costing him many old ones). I already offered it above, but the full Washington Post workup of these numbers, and commentary/explanation by economics correspondent Heather Long, are here. On a related matter, if you care about what used to be called fiscal conservatism, which is the belief that federal debt and deficit matter, here’s a New York Times analysis, based on Congressional Budget Office data, suggesting that the annual budget deficit (that’s the amount the government borrows every year reflecting that amount by which federal spending exceeds revenues) which fell steadily during the Obama years, from a peak of $1.4 trillion at the beginning of the Obama administration, to $585 billion in 2016 (Obama’s last year in office), will be back up to $960 billion this fiscal year, and back over $1 trillion in 2020. (Here’s the New York Times piece detailing those numbers.) Trump is currently floating various tax cuts for the rich and the poor that will presumably worsen those projections, if passed. As the Times piece reported: