Types Of Computer Software

System software tools include OS and utility programs while the software application is task related. Types of computer software basically refers to the language or codes that are involved in various operations of a computer system. Computer Courses - get information about Computer and list of Computer degree, diploma and certificate courses available in India. System Software System software is a set of programs used to implement certain functions in a computer system. = a) System Software: The software that helps to activate the computer system and provide operating environment for other application software is called system software. Â If you get one that’s more powerful than you need, it’s a WASTE OF RESOURCES for a company. So, having computer skills can give you a leg up. In computing, a bus is defined as a set of physical connections (i. System software is responsible for controlling, integrating, and managing the individual hardware components of a computer system so that other software and. 9 Types Of Computer Viruses That You Should Know About – And How To Avoid Them Posted by admin on 4/14/16 • Categorized as Others Being a long-term recipient of them myself, I could say with certainty that every one of us hates to be on the receiving end of viruses. Computer Hardware Global Market Report 2019 - The computer hardware market size is expected to reach $200 billion by 2022, significantly growing at a CAGR of around 6% during the forecast period. The same year Q-CTRL was founded, scientists at Microsoft Research in Washington, US, and ETH Zurich in Switzerland investigated the number of qubits required to simulate the behaviour of an enzyme called. This may involve computers of different sizes—such. Operating Systems. A Computer Interface is a device used to interconnect a computer to a DCC System. The threats could be intentional, accidental or caused by. Computer Graphics Animator. This software is critical to the proper administration of an organization. System Software : This is special type of software which is responsible for handle the whole computer system. Specific programming languages. All computers and computer-like devices require operating systems, including your laptop, tablet , desktop, smartphone, smartwatch, and router. Software is a set of electronic instructions consisting of complex codes (Programs) that make the computer perform tasks. LAN serves for few hundreds of users. The following list itemizes the general classifications of accounting software. The developers who end up there become product managers. THE FIVE TYPES OF COMPUTERS. The computer has many components/hardware without which computers can not do what they are known to do. A BRIEF COMPUTER HISTORY. Types of Software Software can be classified into following two main categories or types 1- System Software 2- Application Software System Software A program or set of programs that is especially designed to control different operations of computer system is called system software. These computers are the cheapest among the other three types of computers. "Hardware" refers the physical parts of the computer, and "software" refers to the code that runs on the. Click Here to see the desktop system these notes were originally prepared on. Text surrounded by tags is typically displayed in the browser's default monospace font:. SCR format are essentially just programs and could contain harmful malware. Computer forensics is a very important branch of computer science in relation to computer and Internet related crimes. A network diagram may include hundreds of different symbols. Current top ten licensing types on offer from vendors (no particular order). Software is the communication link between hardware and users. Use to enter information into the computer. Enumerate two examples of of each of the two main categories of a computer software. Hardware refers to the physical elements of a computer. Computer software, or just software, is the collection of computer programs and related data that provide the instructions telling a computer what to do. We used the Entity-Relationship model to design a database that will store and organize the library's data. The machine tool move-ments used in producing a product are of two basic types: point-to-point (straight-line movements) and continuous path (contouring movements). List of Computer Software List of Computer Software Hi, I am looking for the list of Computer programming languages. System Software. While many types of antivirus (or "anti-virus") programs exist, their primary purpose is to protect computers from viruses and remove any viruses that are found. It is a robust system built over Eclipse’s Rich Client Platform fully based on plug ins. Software is made up of a series of instructions or computer code. You can’t see a movie or commercial nowadays without seeing computer animation. Different kinds of languages have been developed to perform different types of work on the computer. This reduces the complexity of software. If we think of the computer system as a layered model, the system software is the interface between the hardware and user applications. Below is the solution for Type of computer software crossword clue. System Software is a program designed to manage all the hardware resources and also runs the applications programs in a Computer. The PoliceOne Investigation Software product category is a collection of information, product listings and resources for researching Investigation Software solutions. Security Tips. For instance, algorithms for computing have been around for hundreds of years. Software • “A set of instructions given to the computer to solve a problem is called Software. Computer technology makes it easy to electronically teach software engineering basics, assess student progress, and expand upon specialized skills. These are 3 types of system software or operating system which referred simply as the OS, application software and programming languages. Easily initiate a return on an item by using our online order lookup. Computer Skills List. Full list of computer software and support and help with those programs. Classification Of Computer Languages Chapter 15 for SBI PO / IBPS / Clerk / SO and Other Gov Exams - Duration: 38:07. Unfortunately, in order to get our work done quickly and conveniently, some people make and use unauthorized software copies. The system software provides the platform for users to install and run application software, and it's made up of multiple programs needed to run a computer system smoothly. The software system was designed to work with your fingertips: App icons were nice and large, and swipe gestures acted as shortcuts to close apps and return to the home screen. Software engineering definition is - a branch of computer science that deals with the design, implementation, and maintenance of complex computer programs. The same year Q-CTRL was founded, scientists at Microsoft Research in Washington, US, and ETH Zurich in Switzerland investigated the number of qubits required to simulate the behaviour of an enzyme called. We're talking about non-malicious software problems here, not viruses. It also provides common services to computer programs. Over the years, we’ve put just about every type of software imaginable through the ringer to find the best of the best. There are several different types of system software that we will look at in more detail very shortly: Operating Systems are a collection of programs that make the computer hardware conveniently available to the user and also hide the complexities of the computer's operation. Application software is a term which is used for software created for a specific purpose. Generally speaking, computers can be classified into three generations. Example: Keyboard, mouse,joystick, scanner, voice. From computer operating systems to video games, many of the products we rely upon today are supported by software. Answers (1) List down the tools and materials needed in assembling of a computer system. Be aware that there are many different types of “programs”—for example, screensavers in. As the business grows, more software licenses may be required. [3] Originally, when computers were still large mainframes that took up an entire room, software was rented with the computer and the source code was given during rental. Compromised computers and other devices can be used as a foothold allowing attackers to spread through the network. One way is through software that lets the user choose the preferred OS to initialize at startup. Software are broadly classified into two categories - System Software - This software is usually engaged in background processes. It is a great feeling once you have solved one of those difficult computer problems. READ ALSO : Classification Of Computers By Type. Business computers can be either laptops or desktops. Another strength of a cloud-based CMMS is that the software updates automatically, so you’re always using the latest and most secure version. There are free and paid versions of each of these. Even though free of cost, these programs are excellent in solving your math problems. Laptops: Portable computers designed to be carried from place to place. In computer maintenance, diagnostic software is a type of program that has been created with the sole purpose of locating where and what type of issue is present on a computer. For instance, algorithms for computing have been around for hundreds of years. While there are thousands of parts even in the smallest computers that make up its hardware, you are not required to know them all. Click any of the links below for additional information. There are different types of computer software which are useful for several purposes. These software programs directly work from the computer’s operating system. Computer Software & its Types Instructor : Muhammad Hammad Waseem Email: m. The various solutions are adequately provided to the specific needs of the customers. byte A string of bits, usually eight, used to store one number or character in a computer system. A computer, be it a laptop or a desktop or a Mac, is one of the most recognized devices that you will find everywhere today. Remote Desktop Access is a great way to manage the files on your desktop as. In fact all the software other than system software and programming software are application software. It provides platform to run application softwares. Start here for expert advice, career data, degree info, and useful resources to help current and future tech talent build a better tomorrow. Computers help close the gap with office-based competitors, doing the work of a small office staff. The micro-computers are widely used & the fastest growing computers. Supercomputers. Know more about this type of software through this comprehensive guide. This lesson is an introduction to basic computer hardware and software. In learning about computers, the first step usually is to understand the major types of software, their uses, and applications. We use these programs daily and have generally try to keep them updated as much as possible. Software engineering definition is - a branch of computer science that deals with the design, implementation, and maintenance of complex computer programs. It also provides common services to computer programs. At Best Buy, you can find productivity software like Microsoft Office, which is available for PC, Mac and other devices, or antivirus software for optimum Internet protection. system software, programming software and application software. New software programs are introduced. All medical information can now be digitized. The two main types of computer software are the system software and the application software. Software threats can be general problems or an attack by one or more types of malicious programs. task-specific functions of the computer, and application software which is used by users to accomplish specific tasks. The various solutions are adequately provided to the specific needs of the customers. Viruses can appear through e-mail, infected software, diskettes, infected CD/DVD discs or computer documents. Date posted: December 14, 2017. Made and sold by IBM, it is comprehensive, flexible, and can be used with almost any type of data file. Computer Engineers may specialize in either software or hardware. System softwares are most basic form of software without which a computer can't run. What is Linux? From smartphones to cars, supercomputers and home appliances, home desktops to enterprise servers, the Linux operating system is everywhere. At Best Buy, you can find productivity software like Microsoft Office, which is available for PC, Mac and other devices, or antivirus software for optimum Internet protection. Now, computers use WiFi and broadband connections to blaze their way through multimedia content from live streaming news to movies to multi-player games and much more. Each affords a different type of legal protection. Software definition, the programs used to direct the operation of a computer, as well as documentation giving instructions on how to use them. Don’t confuse computer skills with technical skills. Hardware is any part of your computer that has a physical structure, such as the keyboard or mouse. The developers who end up there become product managers. A firewall is a software program or piece of hardware that blocks hackers from entering and using your computer. You will also see different types of computers including their uses, advantages and disadvantages. Software engineering definition is - a branch of computer science that deals with the design, implementation, and maintenance of complex computer programs. 1/ 8 as well as for Windows 7 and XP Users. System Software. Top Five PC Software Applications for School or Office. While it is true that the the use of specific tools can. The Mortgage Office is the most popular and highest ranked lending platform in the US and Canada. This type of computer is sited permanently on a desk because its design means it cannot be easily moved. System software is comprised of device drivers, operating system, server and other such software components, which help the programmer abstract away from the memory and hardware features of the system. The Sinclair ZX Spectrum (with eight colours including black and white!) and Commodore 64 dominated the market. There are different models of software development. Since software is needed almost everywhere today, its development is a highly intelligent and precise process, involving various steps. Choose the most efficient method and corresponding computer program (or custom made solution) given the study design, data collection methods, data types, quality, usability and regulations. They must be experts in the theory of computing systems, the structure of software, and the nature and limitations of hardware to ensure that the underlying systems will work. This category accounts for more damage to programs and data than any other. Click any of the links below for additional information. Computer software can be put into categories based on common function, type, or field of use. It can only have one of two states, representing 0 or 1. These licenses include the MIT license, revised BSD license (and its 2-clause variant), the Apache 2. The goal of Computer forensics is to perform crime. Software work on hardware. These are small, portable computer systems. System Software • Handles technical details • Works with end users, application software, and computer hardware • Four types of programs – Operating system – Utilities – Device drivers – Language translators Page 128 Software Development Tools. It acts as a middle layer between hardware and user applications. Below is a list of the different kinds of software a computer may have installed with examples of related programs. Here’s how to make it work for you. booting: Restarting a computer or its operating system software. Software engineering definition is - a branch of computer science that deals with the design, implementation, and maintenance of complex computer programs. System software acts as interface between hardware and user applications. This includes application software such as a word. Learn more about Sanela Hospital Management Software. Hierarchy diagrams are often used to represent the business and corporate structure. Cons: Lack the extra features of paid-for security software. Computer equipment for blind or partially sighted users. A BRIEF COMPUTER HISTORY. Windows - Windows, with versions including Windows XP, Windows Vista, and Windows 7, is the most common operating system for home users. The computer has many components/hardware without which computers can not do what they are known to do. by Kelly Monaghan. Rajesh Kumar Reddy1 1Dept of CSE Kuppam Engineering College, Kuppam, 2Dept of MCA Sitams, Chittoor, AP,India Abstract— The development lifecycle of software Comprises of four major stages namely Requirement Elicitation, Designing,. Bond: an agreement made binding by a payment of money if the agreement is not honored; also. In this article starting below, you’ll just read about software applications. It is a combination of transistors on a single chip. Computer equipment for blind or partially sighted users. Microsoft PowerPoint. Mac specific malware is a type of malicious application that is targeted at Mac computers running MacOS operating system. The Different Types of Computers October 10, 2014 Type Lister Types of Tools 9 A computer is one of the greatest inventions of man and it has seen many changes in functions, memory space, size and portability. Thulasee Krishna 1,Dr. The system software is a collection of programs designed to operate, control, and extend the processing capabilities of the computer itself. I recently received two queries about software and the home-based travel agent that covered pretty much the same ground so, thinking that there are probably other folks out there with the same questions, I decided to provide an answer here so all can benefit. Hardware vs. The main body of a computer is the system unit. Every time computer users view web pages, check email, chat with friends, stream music online, or play multiplayer video games, their computers, mobile phones, or gaming consoles connect to a global network of computers using open source software to route and transmit their data to the "local" devices they have in front of them. Application software is specific to the task it is designed for, and this quiz/worksheet combo will help you test your understanding of its definition and examples. Here are two other types of computers that are preferred by business-class users. Hardware Costs Types of Software • Systems Software §Programs that coordinate the activities and functions of the hardware and. Well, this article will explain each type of software in details with examples. These software programs assist computer systems and network to start and work. The software is used extensively in several domains including hospitals, banks, schools, defence, finance, stock markets and so on. This can include knowledge of specific software, applications or devices. bloodtype inheritance Software - Free Download bloodtype inheritance - Top 4 Download - Top4Download. Software • "A set of instructions given to the computer to solve a problem is called Software. Software is divided commonly into two main categories: (1) System software: controls the basic (and invisible to the user) functions of a computer and comes usually preinstalled with the machine. Software components are parts of a system or application. Software is made up of a series of instructions or computer code. Software work on hardware. How to Solve the Common PC Hardware & Software Problems? | 1 comments in Computer Hardware , Interent , Internet Security November 28, 2013 In this modern society, most of us owns and use PCs, and meanwhile, we always annoyed by the same problems of laptops. The first thing I noticed was that there was no anti-virus software installed on the computer, so my first goal was to install an anti-virus program and check for viruses. Each of the above types of computer has different variants especially with the emergence of latest. Programs such as Chrome, Firefox, Photoshop, and many others are all built with C++. Security software is also available for a variety of mobile operating systems, including Android and iOS ( iPhone and iPad ). See operating system defined for kids. 8 billion in 1995, of which US$ 1. Computer software, or just software, is the collection of computer programs and related data that provide the instructions telling a computer what to do. At the moment there are no Mac (or Windows) viruses in the wild. Computer-Based Instruction Theory Computer-based instruction, also commonly referred to as Computer Assisted Instruction , was introduced during the 1950s. You may not really need a degree in data science. ;Accounting Software is used by businesses to help automate and manage payroll, purchase orders and more. Top Five PC Software Applications for School or Office. Computer software. In the left column, write the software's name. While searching our database we found 1 possible solution matching the query "Type of computer software". Many hospitals are switching to electronic records. Computer software engineer develop, design and test software or construct, maintain computer networks, programs for companies. Learn computer software quizzes with multiple choice questions: types of software programs are, with choices replicate programs, application programs, logical programs, and both a and b for online MS degree in computer science. System software is also known as operating system which helps start a computer and works as a main platform in order to run any application. In computer maintenance, diagnostic software is a type of program that has been created with the sole purpose of locating where and what type of issue is present on a computer. Don’t confuse computer skills with technical skills. Roughly speaking, there are four different types of computers based on their size which are the ones we will be mentioning below: Microcomputers. In fact all the software other than system software and programming software are application software. It provides platform to run application softwares. Click any of the links below for additional information. They can range from a PC to a complex server rack to a cloud-based storage system. Chapter 3, Operators. System software is the software used to manage and control the hardware components and which allow interaction between the hardware and the other types of software. It differs from hardware reliability in that it reflects the design perfection, rather than manufacturing perfection. Knowing how to identify computer security threats is the first step in protecting computer systems. • Thus, computer worms are technically not computer viruses (since they don’t infect other programs), but some people nevertheless confuse the terms, since. Knowing your computer’s specs is a good idea in case you need to purchase software with specific hardware requirements, especially 3D games that may require a certain graphics card. I have used both Adobe After Effects and iMovie to edit short promotional videos for my previous company, and have received much praise from my employer for my skill in these programs. A virus operates by inserting or attaching itself to a legitimate program or document that supports macros in order to execute its code. Some computers can run two different types of system software; such as both Mac OS X® and a version of Windows®. System software. One book of Sanskrit algorithms dates back to 800 BC. Mac specific malware is a type of malicious application that is targeted at Mac computers running MacOS operating system. We’ve got a list of 50+ different types of file extensions that are potentially dangerous on Windows. Compromised computers and other devices can be used as a foothold allowing attackers to spread through the network. Roughly speaking, there are four different types of computers based on their size which are the ones we will be mentioning below: Microcomputers. Application software is a type of computer program that performs a specific personal, educational, and business function. The text book for the course is "Computer Organization and Design: The Hardware/Software Interface" by Hennessy and Patterson. Some of the devices listed above are called peripheral devices. A computer's hardware is comprised of many different parts, but perhaps the most important of these is the motherboard. Remote Desktop Access is a great way to manage the files on your desktop as. Without it, your PC or Mac would be little more than a large paperweight. Start here for expert advice, career data, degree info, and useful resources to help current and future tech talent build a better tomorrow. Software Types A. TEXTHELP Software--Accessibility software, dyslexia software and text to speech software Herman & Associates --southern California psychological corporation provides evaluation and sessions to try out specialized computer programs that may help circumvent specific learning disabilities such as dyslexia (reading problems) and dysgraphia (writing. Computer program, detailed plan or procedure for solving a problem with a computer; more specifically, an unambiguous, ordered sequence of computational instructions necessary to achieve such a solution. As you may expect, there are a number of subcategories of software engineering. As cloud computing has grown in popularity, several different models and deployment strategies have emerged to help meet specific needs of different users. Furthermore, if you do not run regular Microsoft Windows updates, even regular Internet web browsing can cause major problems, through known security exploits in your Operating System. In general there are three basic types of software: system software, also called operating system, is a set of programmes that manages all the concurrent tasks performed by a computer; utility software is a collection of programmes that perform routine tasks such as copying, compressing data, etc. There are database management computer software, inventory and point of sales computer software, content management systems and many others. System softwares are most basic form of software without which a computer can't run. This is one of hundreds of included sample business proposals. Type of software - Application (perform a specific task) oG r aph ics ,M ul tmedW b g nC o software - Sys t em of war o p rog am scntl ih ef u d v starting application programs r a n sf eig dtb w v c o Resides in the memory (copied from the disk into the memory- loaded) Application software. ti, HyperRESEARCH, MAXQDA, NVivo, Qiqqa, XSight, Dedoose, webQDA, f4analyse, Annotations , Saturate are some of the top Qualitative Data Analysis Software. Once the trigger occurs, a work order will be created. Some computers can run two different types of system software; such as both Mac OS X® and a version of Windows®. An application is basically a type of software. Top Courses in Computer Science in Canada 2020. Computer Resources for Primary Grades! This month, the Education World Tech Team members answered the question Do you think K-3 students should use computers in school? with a resounding yes! Our experts also shared a plethora of activities and progr. Where application software is nothing but designing the data by using front end software and back end software. In practice, nearly all open source software is released under one of a very few licenses that are known to meet this definition. Today we find new terms created frequently to classify types of. If computer skills are part of what you are selling in a job application, cover letter, resume, or school application, you will need to include a summary of them. This page contains a list of basic computer skills and qualifications needed for a basic computer literacy and abilities to work with the most common software currently being used for office work. Type Fu and Master Key both include lessons for the Dvorak keyboard layout, which is the second most popular type of English keyboard. The computer is an amazingly useful general-purpose technology, to the point that now cameras, phones, thermostats, and more are all now little computers. Network Diagram Symbols. It is these instructions which tell the hardware that it needs to print a document or save a file or display a web page. Computers are connected with each other either through LAN connection, as well as other peripherals like a printer or a copier machine. One way is through software that lets the user choose the preferred OS to initialize at startup. Date posted: December 14, 2017. The threats could be intentional, accidental or caused by. The Sinclair ZX Spectrum (with eight colours including black and white!) and Commodore 64 dominated the market. Software, by definition, is the collection of computer programs, procedures and documentation that performs different tasks on a computer system. Examples include a monitor, video card, disc drive, and mouse. It is produced by Microsoft and is typically included on machines purchased in electronics stores or from vendors such as Dell or Gateway. As the business grows, more software licenses may be required. Each of the above types of computer has different variants especially with the emergence of latest. The various solutions are adequately provided to the specific needs of the customers. In learning about computers, one of the first steps is to understand the major types of software, their uses, and applications. Other application systems are very large and complex and can be used by hundreds of people in different geographic locations. Course web pages: (Either using TopClass course management system or faculty member creating own site using PageMill or other web-authoring software). Learn about each of the five generations of computers and major technology developments that have led to the computing devices that we use today. System software is also known as operating system which helps start a computer and works as a main platform in order to run any application. Sreekanth2,K. Because, it is well-known fact that, there is no any software made till now, which can perform every work. Hardware vs. Basic IT skills begin with knowing how and when to do routine maintenance and how to cope with frozen programs or damaged USB ports. Computer technology is radically changing the tools of medicine. cables, printed circuits, etc. A virus operates by inserting or attaching itself to a legitimate program or document that supports macros in order to execute its code. The software is used extensively in several domains including hospitals, banks, schools, defence, finance, stock markets and so on. The Parallels software boasts a direct link, thanks to optimization on Intel and AMD chips, to the host computer’s hardware with selective focus—when you jump into the virtual machine to work. Software can be divided into two major categories. A Medical Assistant should possess a very good knowledge in operating computers as he or she is accountable for billing & filling out of insurance forms, accounting, and bookkeeping. This can include knowledge of specific software, applications or devices. Connection less service: It is a one phase process and includes Data Transfer. Linux has been around since the mid-1990s and has since reached a user-base that spans the globe. And you can find them everywhere, from big tech firms and government agencies to start-ups and nonprofits. com and the Shop Samsung App. It is produced by Microsoft and is typically included on machines purchased in electronics stores or from vendors such as Dell or Gateway. This reduces the complexity of software. Some of the devices listed above are called peripheral devices. Computer Skills. System software is general purpose software which is used to operate computer hardware. Components are a means of breaking the complexity of software into manageable parts. It is responsible for controlling, integrating and managing the hardware components of a computer system and for accomplishing specific tasks. It controls the working of different components of the computer. These are small, portable computer systems. You can’t see a movie or commercial nowadays without seeing computer animation. The computer gets infected through the replication of malicious code. It provides easy access and control over a PC or device when connected remotely. List of Computer Hardware. Roughly speaking, there are four different types of computers based on their size which are the ones we will be mentioning below: Microcomputers. If someone is hired who does not have these skills, additional training will be required so he can do his job well. system software, programming software and application software. Free Download Hierarchy Diagram Software and View All Examples. This process creates software images to which XO users can upgrade their XO, and OS "images" of the bundled software that users on other computers can download and run by Emulating the XO. telephone, copy machine). Chapter 4 Methods of Software Acquisition BA4B2001 @ Peter Lo 2007 2 Evaluating Software Alternatives Examine software alternatives and select an overall strategy for the proposed system to prepare for the transition to the systems design phase. Types of System Software Operating System An operating system is software which manages computer hardware and software resources. Application software gives the computer practical functionality. Having a collection of pages for each course (a course site) that includes some or all of the following: syllabus, class schedule, assignments, links to readings,. Computer Quiz -2-General Knowledge Questions and Answers updated on Nov 2019 Trial test of a computer or software before the commercial launch Mows is a type. Here we provide you free hacking ebooks to learn hacking tricks for free online and Offline. It can be categorized into different types: On the basis of application: System Software - System Software is necessary to manage the computer resources and support the execution of application programs. In theory a computer virus is malicious program that can self replicate when launched. Let us discuss these types of software in detail with examples of each. Components can be swapped in and out like the interchangeable parts of a machine. Users often employ one of two different methods to run more than one OS at the same time. Processer Displays or prints information produced by a computer. Next Education is an end-to-end academic solution provider to schools. ' and find. ), or what you can physically operate as well (fork lift, floor cleaner, etc). Current top ten licensing types on offer from vendors (no particular order). In this type of transmission, the receiving device sends an acknowledgment, back to the source after a packet or group of packet is received. System Software : This is special type of software which is responsible for handle the whole computer system. Hardware vs. Text surrounded by tags is typically displayed in the browser's default monospace font:. Computer integrations such as point of sale systems, scan-and-go services, online shopping and robotic assistants all aim to improve a customer's shopping experience. List of Computer Hardware. Application Software Payroll Software. We're talking about non-malicious software problems here, not viruses. That software includes Web applications (including browser and server components), Web services,. The fact-checkers, whose work is more and more important for those who prefer facts over lies, police the line between fact and falsehood on a day-to-day basis, and do a great job. Today, my small contribution is to pass along a very good overview that reflects on one of Trump’s favorite overarching falsehoods. Namely: Trump describes an America in which everything was going down the tubes under  Obama, which is why we needed Trump to make America great again. And he claims that this project has come to fruition, with America setting records for prosperity under his leadership and guidance. “Obama bad; Trump good” is pretty much his analysis in all areas and measurement of U.S. activity, especially economically. Even if this were true, it would reflect poorly on Trump’s character, but it has the added problem of being false, a big lie made up of many small ones. Personally, I don’t assume that all economic measurements directly reflect the leadership of whoever occupies the Oval Office, nor am I smart enough to figure out what causes what in the economy. But the idea that presidents get the credit or the blame for the economy during their tenure is a political fact of life. Trump, in his adorable, immodest mendacity, not only claims credit for everything good that happens in the economy, but tells people, literally and specifically, that they have to vote for him even if they hate him, because without his guidance, their 401(k) accounts “will go down the tubes.” That would be offensive even if it were true, but it is utterly false. The stock market has been on a 10-year run of steady gains that began in 2009, the year Barack Obama was inaugurated. But why would anyone care about that? It’s only an unarguable, stubborn fact. Still, speaking of facts, there are so many measurements and indicators of how the economy is doing, that those not committed to an honest investigation can find evidence for whatever they want to believe. Trump and his most committed followers want to believe that everything was terrible under Barack Obama and great under Trump. That’s baloney. Anyone who believes that believes something false. And a series of charts and graphs published Monday in the Washington Post and explained by Economics Correspondent Heather Long provides the data that tells the tale. The details are complicated. Click through to the link above and you’ll learn much. But the overview is pretty simply this: The U.S. economy had a major meltdown in the last year of the George W. Bush presidency. Again, I’m not smart enough to know how much of this was Bush’s “fault.” But he had been in office for six years when the trouble started. So, if it’s ever reasonable to hold a president accountable for the performance of the economy, the timeline is bad for Bush. GDP growth went negative. Job growth fell sharply and then went negative. Median household income shrank. The Dow Jones Industrial Average dropped by more than 5,000 points! U.S. manufacturing output plunged, as did average home values, as did average hourly wages, as did measures of consumer confidence and most other indicators of economic health. (Backup for that is contained in the Post piece I linked to above.) Barack Obama inherited that mess of falling numbers, which continued during his first year in office, 2009, as he put in place policies designed to turn it around. By 2010, Obama’s second year, pretty much all of the negative numbers had turned positive. By the time Obama was up for reelection in 2012, all of them were headed in the right direction, which is certainly among the reasons voters gave him a second term by a solid (not landslide) margin. Basically, all of those good numbers continued throughout the second Obama term. The U.S. GDP, probably the single best measure of how the economy is doing, grew by 2.9 percent in 2015, which was Obama’s seventh year in office and was the best GDP growth number since before the crash of the late Bush years. GDP growth slowed to 1.6 percent in 2016, which may have been among the indicators that supported Trump’s campaign-year argument that everything was going to hell and only he could fix it. During the first year of Trump, GDP growth grew to 2.4 percent, which is decent but not great and anyway, a reasonable person would acknowledge that — to the degree that economic performance is to the credit or blame of the president — the performance in the first year of a new president is a mixture of the old and new policies. In Trump’s second year, 2018, the GDP grew 2.9 percent, equaling Obama’s best year, and so far in 2019, the growth rate has fallen to 2.1 percent, a mediocre number and a decline for which Trump presumably accepts no responsibility and blames either Nancy Pelosi, Ilhan Omar or, if he can swing it, Barack Obama. I suppose it’s natural for a president to want to take credit for everything good that happens on his (or someday her) watch, but not the blame for anything bad. Trump is more blatant about this than most. If we judge by his bad but remarkably steady approval ratings (today, according to the average maintained by 538.com, it’s 41.9 approval/ 53.7 disapproval) the pretty-good economy is not winning him new supporters, nor is his constant exaggeration of his accomplishments costing him many old ones). I already offered it above, but the full Washington Post workup of these numbers, and commentary/explanation by economics correspondent Heather Long, are here. On a related matter, if you care about what used to be called fiscal conservatism, which is the belief that federal debt and deficit matter, here’s a New York Times analysis, based on Congressional Budget Office data, suggesting that the annual budget deficit (that’s the amount the government borrows every year reflecting that amount by which federal spending exceeds revenues) which fell steadily during the Obama years, from a peak of $1.4 trillion at the beginning of the Obama administration, to $585 billion in 2016 (Obama’s last year in office), will be back up to $960 billion this fiscal year, and back over $1 trillion in 2020. (Here’s the New York Times piece detailing those numbers.) Trump is currently floating various tax cuts for the rich and the poor that will presumably worsen those projections, if passed. As the Times piece reported: